In order to better communicate to our computers what exactly it is we want them to do, we've developed a wide range of programming languages to make the communication process easier.

These typing characteristics are not necessarily mutually exclusive, and some languages mix them


A programming paradigm is a methodology of programming.


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 Multiline comment.

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int main() Function:
  • Must return an integer.
  • Must only be one "main" function.

  • Statements:
  • Statements can strech over multiple lines.
  • Statements must end with ;

  • Identifiers:
  • Can not use reserved keywords.
  • Identifier refers to name given to objects such as variables, functions, structures, etc.
  • May have letters (both uppercase and lowercase letters), digits and underscores.
  • The first 63 characters are checked for uniqueness.
  • Starting with _ is common for private identifiers.
  • Starting with __ is for system level private identifiers

  • Expression:
  • Anything that returns a value.

  • Assignment Expression: >li>Assigns a value to a variable.
  • Data type must be declared.
  • int x;
    x = 69;
    int x = 69;

    Refrence Variable:
  • Much like a pointer.
  • Can not define a Refrence without initalizing it.

  • C-String:
  • String is an array of characters strung together and terminated with a 0. Called a NULL terminated string.
  • char s[] = { "s", "t", "r", "i", "n", "g", 0 };
    Same as:
    char s[] = "string";

  • Use the string library. Known as an STL string:
  • #include <string >
    string s1 = "Have a";
    string s2 = " nice day";

  • To concatenate to strings use the plus sign:
  • string s3 = s1 + s2;
    cout <<s3 <<endl;

    Output:Have a nice day

  • Length of a String:
  • s3.length()

  • Check if String is empty or not:
  • s4.empty()

  • Convert string into constant character array:
  • const char* cstr = s3.c_str();

  • Compare two strings. This function will return 0, if the strings are equal; negative value, if string1 is less than string2 and positive value if string1 is greater than string2.
  • strcmp(string1, string2)

    char s[] = { };
  • Fixed sized container for elements of a common data type. After declaring an array, we cannot change the size of the array. That means we can't reduce the size nor increase the size of an array.

  • Index uses integer value. x[0]; x[1];
  • int n[ 10 ]; // n is an array of 10 integers
    // initialize elements of array n to 0
    for( int i = 0; i <10; i++ ) {
     n[ i ] = i + 100; // set element at location i to i + 100

  • Specifies that no value is available.

  • Built-in Types:
    Type Keyword
    Boolean bool
    Character char
    Integer int
    Floating point float
    Double floating point double
    Valueless void
    Wide character wchar_t

    Integer Types
    Type Storage size Value range
    char 1 byte -128 to 127 or 0 to 255
    unsigned char 1 byte 0 to 255
    signed char 1 byte -128 to 127
    int 2 or 4 bytes -32,768 to 32,767 or -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647
    unsigned int 2 or 4 bytes 0 to 65,535 or 0 to 4,294,967,295
    short 2 bytes -32,768 to 32,767
    unsigned short 2 bytes 0 to 65,535
    long 4 bytes -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647
    unsigned long 4 bytes 0 to 4,294,967,295

    Floating-Point Types
    Type Storage size Value range Precision
    float 4 byte 1.2E-38 to 3.4E+38 6 decimal places
    double 8 byte 2.3E-308 to 1.7E+308 15 decimal places
    long double 10 byte 3.4E-4932 to 1.1E+4932 19 decimal places

    Modifier Types:
  • Signedness is a property of data types representing numbers in computer programs. A numeric variable is signed if it can represent both positive and negative numbers, and unsigned if it can only represent non-negative numbers (zero or positive numbers).

  • A modifier is used to alter the meaning of the base type so that it more precisely fits the needs of various situations.
  • All four modifiers can be applied to the int type.
  • char type allows only signed and unsigned modifiers.
  • double type can be used with the long modifier
  • int type allows use of the shorthand notation. So, the following variable definitions are identical:
  • short int a;
    short a;

    unsigned int a;
    unsigned a;

    long int a;
    long a;
  • (Signed ) int can have value -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647. Unsigned int can have value 0 to 4,294,967,295.

  • sizeof(type):
  • Yields the storage size of the object or type in bytes.
  • printf("Storage size for int : %d \n", sizeof(int));

  • Constants refer to fixed values that the program may not alter and they are called literals.
  • Known as a Read-only variable.
  • Constants can be of any of the basic data types and can be divided in Integer Numerals, Floating-Point Numerals, Characters, Strings and Boolean Values.

  • Pointers:

  • Variable whose value is the address of another variable.

  • int var = 20; // actual variable declaration.
    int *ip; // pointer variable
    ip = &var;// store address of var in pointer variable
    int *ip; // pointer to an integer
    double *dp; // pointer to a double
    float *fp; // pointer to a float
    char *ch // pointer to character

    // print the address stored in ip pointer variable
    cout <<"Address stored in ip variable: " <<ip;

    // access the value at the address available in pointer
    cout <<"Value of *ip variable: ";
    cout <<*ip <<endl

  • You can define arrays to hold a number of pointers.

  • There are four arithmetic operators that can be used on pointers: ++, --, +, -

  • C++ supports null pointer, which is a constant with a value of zero defined in several standard libraries.

  • C++ allows you to have pointer on a pointer and so on.

  • Passing an argument by reference or by address both enable the passed argument to be changed in the calling function by the called function.

  • C++ allows a function to return a pointer to local variable, static variable and dynamically allocated memory as well.

  • Loops:

  • A loop can be nested inside of another loop. C++ allows at least 256 levels of nesting.
  • When the conditional expression is absent, it is assumed to be true. You may have an initialization and increment expression, but C++ programmers more commonly use the for(;;) construct to signify an infinite loop.

  • while loop:

  • Repeats a statement or group of statements while a given condition is true. It tests the condition before executing the loop body.
  • while( a <20 ) {
     cout <<"value of a: " <<a <<endl;

    do...while loop:

  • Unlike for and while loops, which test the loop condition at the top of the loop, the do...while loop checks its condition at the bottom of the loop.
  • A do...while loop is similar to a while loop, except that a do...while loop is guaranteed to execute at least one time.
  • do {
     cout <<"value of a: " <<a <<endl;
     a = a + 1;
    } while( a <20 );

    for loop:

  • Execute a sequence of statements multiple times and abbreviates the code that manages the loop variable.
  • for (int i = 0; i <5; i++) {
     cout <<"i is " <<i <<endl;

    Control Statement Description

    break statement

    Terminates the loop or switch statement and transfers execution to the statement immediately following the loop or switch.

    continue statement

    Causes the loop to skip the remainder of its body and immediately retest its condition prior to reiterating.

    goto statement

    Transfers control to the labeled statement. Though it is not advised to use goto statement in your program.

    Conditional Statements:

  • If Statement:

  • if (1 == 1) {

  • If-Else Statement:

  • if (1 == 1) {
    } else if (1 <0) {
     puts("Lesser Then");
    } else {
     puts("Greater Then");

    Switch Statement:
  • Compares parameter to constants
  • // local variable declaration:
    char grade = 'D';

    switch (grade) {
     case 'A' :
      cout <<"Excellent!" <<endl;
     case 'B' :
     case 'C' :
      cout <<"Well done" <<endl;
     case 'D' :
      cout <<"You passed" <<endl;
     case 'F' :
      cout <<"Better try again" <<endl;
     default :
      cout <<"Invalid grade" <<endl;
    cout <<"Your grade is " <<grade <<endl;

    Conditional Expressions:

    conditional Expression ? expression1 : expression2;
  • ** if the conditional Expression is true, expression1 executes, otherwise if the conditional Expression is false, expression 2 executes.

  • If both the true and false expressions assign values to the same variable, you can improve the efficiency by assigning the variable one time:
  • (a >b) ? (c = 25) : (c = 45);

    Can be written as:

    c = (a >b) ? 25 : 45;

  • The question mark helps the statement read as follows:
    "Is a greater than b? If so, put 25 in c. Otherwise, put 45 in c."

  • if (a >b) {
     c = 25;
    } else {
     c = 45;

    Can be replaced with:

    (a >b) ? (c = 25) : (c = 45);

    Classes &Objects:

  • A class definition must be followed either by a semicolon or a list of declarations.
  • Access type specifies the possibility to access data members and member functions.

  • Public class members and functions can be used from outside of a class by any function or other classes. You can access public data members or function directly by using dot operator (.) or (arrow operator->with pointers).
  • Private class members and functions can be used inside its class. Protected members and functions cannot be accessed from other classes directly.
  • Protected access specifier allows friend functions and classes to access these data members and functions. Protected data members and functions can be used by the class derived from this class.

  • Preprocessor:

  • Give instruction to the compiler to preprocess the information before actual compilation starts.
  • Begin with #.
  • Only white-space characters may appear before a preprocessor directive on a line.
  • Preprocessor directives are not C++ statements, so they do not end in a semicolon (;).

  • #include is used to include a header file into the source file.

  • #define creates symbolic constants. The symbolic constant is called a macro and the general form of the directive is:
  • #definemacro-name replacement-text
    #define MIN(a, b) (((a) <(b)) ? a : b)
    #define DEBUG
    #ifdef DEBUG
     cerr <<"Trace: Inside main function" <<endl;

  • #if

  • #else

  • #line

  • Predefined C++ Macros:
    Macro Description
    __LINE__ This contain the current line number of the program when it is being compiled.
    __FILE__ This contain the current file name of the program when it is being compiled.
    __DATE__ This contains a string of the form month/day/year that is the date of the translation of the source file into object code.
    __TIME__ This contains a string of the form hour:minute:second that is the time at which the program was compiled.
    cout <<"Value of __LINE__ : " <<__LINE__ <<endl;
    cout <<"Value of __FILE__ : " <<__FILE__ <<endl;
    cout <<"Value of __DATE__ : " <<__DATE__ <<endl;
    cout <<"Value of __TIME__ : " <<__TIME__ <<endl;


  • A Function is a block of code that may be called by and return a value to other code.
  • Function parameters can be an Assignment Expression

  • int x;
    printf("%d", x = 32);

    Call by value:

  • Function arguements are passed to functions by value. If you pass in a variable, a copy of the variable is passed to the function. Caller variable is unmodified.

  • Call by reference:

  • The # and ## Operators:

  • The # and ## preprocessor operators are available in C++ and ANSI/ISO C.
  • The # operator causes a replacement-text token to be converted to a string surrounded by quotes.
  • #include <iostream >
    using namespace std;
    #define MKSTR( x ) #x
    int main () {
     cout <<MKSTR(HELLO C++) <<endl;
     return 0;

    Output (No "" Around The String):

    HELLO C++

  • Preprocessor turns the line:
  • cout <<MKSTR(HELLO C++) <<endl;


    cout <<"HELLO C++" <<endl;

  • The ## operator is used to concatenate two tokens.

  • cout requires lot of STL:


    %c used for printing character object. Not a string. "x";

    %d and %i converts a signed integer into decimal representation.

    %f converts floating-point to the decimal notation.

    %n returns the number of characters written so far by this call to the function.

    %s writes a character string.

    %x converts an unsigned integer into hexadecimal representation.

    #include <cstdio >
    #include <limits >
    #include <cstdint >
    #include <cinttypes >

    using namespace std;

    int main() {


    const char * s = "Hello";

    printf("\t[%10s]\n\t[%-10s]\n\t[%*s]\n\t[%-10.*s]\n\t[%-*.*s]\n", s, s, 10, s, 4, s, 10, 4, s);
    printf("Characters:\t%c %%\n", 65);
    printf("Decimal:\t%i %d %.6i %i %.0i %+i %u\n", 1, 2, 3, 0, 0, 4, -1);
    printf("Hexadecimal:\t%x %x %X %#x\n", 5, 10, 10, 6);
    printf("Octal:\t%o %#o %#o\n", 10, 10, 4);
    printf("Floating point\n");
    printf("Rounding:\t%f %.0f %.32f\n", 1.5, 1.5, 1.3);
    printf("Padding:\t%05.2f %.2f %5.2f\n", 1.5, 1.5, 1.5);
    printf("Scientific:\t%E %e\n", 1.5, 1.5);
    printf("Hexadecimal:\t%a %A\n", 1.5, 1.5);
    printf("Special values:\t0/0=%g 1/0=%g\n", 0./0, 1./0);
    printf("Variable width control:\n");
    printf("right-justified variable width: '%*c'\n", 5, 'x');
    int r = printf("left-justified variable width : '%*c'\n", -5, 'x');
    printf("(the last printf printed %d characters)\n", r);

     // fixed-width types
    uint32_t val = numeric_limits <uint32_t >::max();
    printf("Largest 32-bit value is %" PRIu32 " or %#" PRIx32 "\n", val, val);
    return 0;


     [ Hello]
     [Hello  ]
     [ Hello]
    Characters: A %
    Decimal: 1 2 000003 0 +4 4294967295
    Hexadecimal: 5 a A 0x6
    Octal: 12 012 04
    Floating point Rounding: 1.500000 2 1.30000000000000004440892098500626
    Padding: 01.50 1.50 1.50
    Scientific: 1.500000E+000 1.500000e+000
    Hexadecimal: 0x0p-63 0X0P-63
    Special values: 0/0=nan 1/0=inf
    Variable width control:
    right-justified variable width: ' x'
    left-justified variable width : 'x '
    (the last printf printed 40 characters)
    Largest 32-bit value is 4294967295 or 0xffffffff


    Pointers may not be passed BYREF, so the lpszCmdLine parameter of WINMAIN must be declared to be passed BYVAL.

    #include <windows.h>

    int WINAPI WinMain(HINSTANCE hInstance, HINSTANCE hPrevInstance, LPSTR lpCmdLine, int nCmdShow) {
    MessageBox(NULL, "Goodbye, cruel world!", "Note", MB_OK);
    return 0;

    #include <windows.h>

    int main() {
     MessageBox(0, "Press OK", "Hi", MB_SETFOREGROUND);
     return 0;